Search 2.0 – What’s Next?

first_img8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting emre sokullu 1 Image SearchImage Search has been around for a very long time, but to be frank it’s still veryprimitive. What most image search engines do is just look for text around images andexamine the image tags. Riya was the first to introduce advanced face recognitiontechnologies in image search. This obviously requires a lot of computing power and justbecause of this, Riya’s weekly burnrate is supposedly over $100K. Co-founded by web 1.0veteran Munjal Shah and face recognition gurus Burak Gokturk and Azhar Khan, Riya is nowentering a whole new space – “search by likeness” with like.com. This may come in veryhandy, for example when you try to find a watch that is similar to the one you have adigital photo of. That’s why Riya is expected to make partnership deals with, or getacquired by, e-commerce companies like Amazon and eBay. It’s worth noting that Riya wasonce in acquisition negotiations with Google, but this never happened – and Google endedup acquiring another face recognition company, Neven Vision. So we can conclude thatGoogle is pursuing this technology very closely!Approach Enhancements (Vertical Search)Vertical search is a relatively new discipline in search. Basically, vertical engineslook up a very limited subset of the internet – so they are more efficient than genericsearch engines. Because their search area is not so broad, they can adapt themselves forthe specific needs and common points of their area of focus. We won’t go in too muchdetail about vertical search engines, as it has already been covered in a recentarticle in Read/WriteWeb. But we can categorize the major vertical engines this way:Jobs: SimplyHired.com Indeed.com, Bixee.com (India), Eluta.ca (Canada),Recruit.net (Hong Kong)Travel: Sidestep.com, Kayak.com, Mobissimo.comHealth: Amniota.com, CloserLookSearch.com, GenieKnows.com, Healia.com,Healthline.com, Kosmix.com, MammaHealth.com, Google HealthClassifieds: Edgeio.com, Oodle.comBlogs: Technorati, Bloglines, Blogger Search, Sphere, FeedsterSource Code: Koders.com, Krugle, Google CodeConclusionThe innovation in search does not stop and there’s much to look forward to in thesearch space. What’s more, Google and Yahoo search APIs and the open source Nutch andDMOZ projects allow anyone to try out new ideas. Nutch, supported by Yahoo and shielded underApache SoftwareFoundation, is providing a free global search engine. DMOZ gives you a very large open source web directory editedby volunteers. Google will have a hard time competing not only its big adversaries like Microsoft,Yahoo and Ask – but also the ambitious startups that are opening new dimensions andbringing forth new approaches. We will probably hear of acquisitions in this space aswell. We may not have covered all the promising new search offerings here, so please let usknow your feedback in the comments below. Also let us know which of the above approachessounds the most promising to you – and why. Written by Emre Sokullu and edited by RichardMacManusYou may feel relatively satisfied with the current search offerings of Google, Yahoo,Ask and MSN. Search today is undoubtedly much better than what it was in the second halfof the 1990’s. But Internet search is still in its infancy and there’s much room forimprovement. Moreover, the super high valuation of Google on NASDAQ pushes investors andresearchers to find better search solutions – to be The Next Big Thing. And thesewannabes are not only working on discovering better indexing techniques, they’reexploring new horizons like vertical engines, meaning-based search, intent-driven search,new clustering methods, and much more. In this post, we look into latest trends in thesearch industry. We have positioned the latest search trends into 3 main categories:UI EnhancementsTechnology EnhancementsApproach Enhancements (Vertical Engines)UI EnhancementsSnap Snap promises a betterinterface for search, using the latest advancements in browsers and AJAX technology.Although there were earlier, similar implementations, preview powered search isperhaps the biggest innovation of Snap. With Snap’s preview powered search, you don’tnecessarily need to visit the site to see if it satisfies your needs – you can see adynamically loaded screenshot in the right side of your window. According to a Microsoft study, usersspend 11 minutes on a typical search – so potentially Snap can radically shorten thistime. Another benefit is that it allows you browse the search results with a few keystrokes, which is another big usability enhancement. However it’s worth noting that Snapis slow to process searches as a result, because there’s too much Javascript and it’s tooheavy for most modern browsers and hardware. Also, from a technology point of view, Snapdoesn’t have much to offer – it uses Ask’s existing technology. However they haveintroduced a power of masses approach with options for “This page is Junk” and“This page is Perfect”. Snap’s real time query recommendation is also a little similar to an idea once testedat Google Labs. All in all, Snap doesn’t bring anything new to the table, but it’s a goodmashup of some of the innovative ideas in search that we’ve seen in the last fewmonths.SearchMash SearchMash is actually aGoogle site, to test their latest search innovations. SearchMash follows the basic Googleprinciple – it’s cutting-edge, but still plain and simple. When you do a typical websearch, you also see image, blog, video and Wikipedia results in the right side of thescreen. And there’s absolutely no noticeable speed loss, thanks to AJAX. Basically it isa shortcut to reach all the information you need. The best innovation of SearchMash is perhaps the “More web results” bar. I stronglyrecommend Google find a way to implement it into their default engine immediately. Itmakes it much easier to browse the search results. When you need more information, simplyclick on “More web results” and new results appear at the bottom – enabling you tocontinue scrolling down on the same page, instead of opening a new page. SearchMash alsoallows you to give feedback about the results; this may be a sign of the introduction ofpower of masses into Google Search. All in all, SearchMash shows that while Google continues to keep itself simple, italso has absolutely no intention of giving way on the innovation front to upcomers. Allof the new features in SearchMash are discussed on their About page.Live.com Live.com, the new internetinitiative of Microsoft, had many innovative ideas at the beginning. However as Vista’sofficial release date gets closer, it has become a much more traditional searchengine. Besides the technology advances in their algorithms, which Microsoft hopeswill enable it to compete with Google, there are/were many UI enhancements as well. Thereused to be, for example, an infinite scrollbar in Live.com – but this seems to have beenremoved for the final public release. Most innovations in the image search interface have been kept though – the tieredzooming feature is the most blatant one. Live’s Image Search offers seamless userexperience enhancements. The infinite scrollbar functionality fits very well and savesyou from the hassle of clicking and waiting. And Scratchpad functionality allows you topick your favourites and compare them smoothly. Overall we can conclude that Live’s interface, when compared to old MSN and Microsoftsites, got more simple and Google-like. Technology AdvancementsSearch forMeaning by Hakia Hakia’s motto is “Search forMeaning”. Founded by seasoned nuclear scientist Riza Berkan, Hakia has raised more than $30M so far, mostly from European private investors. With Hakia youdon’t search keywords, instead you directly ask questions to the search engine. Hakiamakes deep semantic analysis on the pages they crawl. It introduces a new mosaic-likeindexing method called QDEX (Query Detection and Extraction).Despite all these nice promises, currently Hakia does not always return the correctresults. However they’re still in public alpha release and the company is set to debutits full operations in Jan, 2007. After this date, we will have a better chance to judgeHakia’s capabilities. Note that Hakia works on top of Microsoft technologies.Also see Read/WriteWeb’srecent post reviewing Hakia.Clustered Search of Vivisimo and Ask Neither Vivisimo nor Ask are new companies. Both offer clustered search, which meansfragmenting the results of your query so that users can see related terms and go deeperor broader in their data mining. Vivisimo was the first to offer it and it’s very usefulin cases where you are researching a topic that you’re completely new to. Ask’s approachis less dense than Vivisimo’s and is somehow similar to Live’s related results feature.But as stated above, clustered search is probably not something you’ll need all the time– it’s more a side feature that may be helpful in some cases. Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…center_img Tags:#search#web Read/WriteWeb profiledAsk last month.Intent-Driven Search by Yahoo! This is a brilliant idea.Yahoo’s research project Mindset brings you results according toyour search purposes. For instance, when you enter “Rolex Watches” in the search box, youmay be willing to buy a Rolex Watch or make an encyclopedic research about the company.Yahoo’s intent-driven search allows you to specify your intent and get the most relevantresults. Note that intent-driven search is still in a very early phase, but it’s very promisingfor mainstream users.Google’s Ori AlonIn April this year, Google bought a patented technology that allows them to showrelated terms after your query. For example, if you search information on the War ofIndependence, this technology gives you a list of related words – like Etzel, Palmach,Ben-Gurion. The patent was taken by an Israeli phD studying in Australia. Google has notreleased this feature yet on Google or SearchMash, but it is expected to be shown soon.Also, it is rumored that Microsoft and Yahoo were also after this patent, but Google wonthe race.Del.icio.us and Power of Masses You may ask, what is del.icio.us doing in between all thesesearch sites – isn’t it just a bookmarking system? Well, the answer is both yes and no.While it’s true that it’s a bookmarking site, Yahoo probably didn’t buy them just forbookmarking. Actually del.icio.us is also a great tool that empowers the search resultsof any search engine. Because when you bookmark a site, this indicates the site is auseful resource – so its “pagerank” should be increased. In other words, del.icio.us canactually be used as a search engine, fueled by the power of masses principle. Anddel.icio.us is not alone in this – Wink and Snap are also trying to use the power of massesin their search offerings. Supposedly, Google also uses some sort of power of masses with their PersonalizedSearch and Google Toolbar offerings.NLP (Natural Language Processing) powered Powerset While still in stealth mode,Powerset has already raised $12.5M in pre-money valuation from several venture capital companies and angelinvestors like Reid Hoffman, Luke Nosek and early Googlers Aydin Senkut and Zain Khan.The difference between Powerset and the traditional search engines is that while typicalsearch engines like Google and Yahoo don’t take into account stopwords (by, after, the,etc), stopwords are a very important part of the engine for Powerset. Why? BecausePowerset relies on a semantic capability that can be triggered by using these stopwords.So while the “book by children” and “book for children” queries return exactly the sameresults in Google, Powerset evaluates them separately and somehow cares about yourstopwords as well.Personalized Search Palo Alto based Collarity is a very new companyentering into the personalized search area. The question that pushed them into thischallenge is: “Why are your search results exactly the same as the next person’s searchresults?” This is not a very new idea – Google (with its Kaltix acquisition in 2003) andothers already offer this feature, albeit weakly. However Collarity seems very strongwith their innovative interface (Collarity Slider), outsourced approach (CollarityCompass) and promising technology.Social Search Read/WriteWeb has covered the area of social search very thoroughly alreadyin twoarticles in July byEbrahim Ezzy. Two good examples are Eurekster’s Swicki and Rollyo. Swicki is a community-driven search engine that allowsusers to create deep, focused searches on a specific niche – and ‘learns’ from itscommunity. Rollyo allows users to create and publishtheir own personal search engines, based on websites they decide to include in their“SearchRoll”. A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts last_img read more

Golfer Arjun Atwal aims for glory at Indian Open

first_imgIndian golfer Arjun Atwal is set to launch a title challenge at the Hero Indian Open – starting from March 9 – in the tournament which propelled him to stardom nearly 20 years ago.Atwal claimed his maiden Asian Tour victory at the National Open in 1999, which subsequently paved his way to a stellar career that now includes eight tournament wins across the region and also one in the United States.In addition, he became Asia’s No.1 in 2003, was the first golfer to break $1 million in career earnings on the Asian Tour and entered the history books by becoming the first Indian golfer to win on the European Tour and PGA Tour.The 43-year-old reckoned that he is still very capable of competing at the highest level in Asia and he is turning his attention to the Indian Open, co-sanctioned by the Asian Tour and European Tour.”I’m looking forward to it, it’s our national open. It’s fun as you get to play in front of family and friends. I’ve won at the old course at DLF a long time ago and it’s a brand new course now. I think it’s going to be a challenging test as the greens are very undulating,” Atwal said.He recalled with great fondness his career breakthrough which he achieved in the 1999 Indian Open at his home course at Royal Calcutta Golf Club.”Winning then was fantastic. Obviously I’d never won on the Asian Tour, I’d come close and kept knocking on the door on many occasions. But to do it for the first time at home in front of everybody, my family and friends, that was really special,” said Atwal.advertisement”It gave me the confidence that I could win and I did go on to win quite a few more tournaments. It’s been a fulfilling career. I had set goals for myself and I got to most of my goals. You know, I was the first Indian to win on the European Tour, the first to win on the PGA Tour— that can never be taken away from me. It’s always going to be special to me,” he added.The injuries in recent years has forced Atwal to readjust his playing schedule and tweak his golf swing to avoid the risk of enduring spasms.With today’s modern game now trending towards a new and young generation of golfers, Atwal believes he is still very capable of competing and winning on the Asian Tour.”As long as my health is okay, if I can get into contention, I know I can hold my nerve and win again. I proved it when I won in Dubai (in 2014 which was his last Asian Tour victory). When I got into that position, it all came back. It was no big deal handling the pressure. That’s why I’m still playing,” said Atwal.Talking about his injury, Atwal said: “The back is better. I’m trying to figure out a few things in my golf swing where my back doesn’t go out. It’s almost like the same injury that Tiger (Woods) is having. If the joints go out of position, the lower back will go into spasm.”last_img read more

S African healer jailed for life in beheading of Indian-origin

first_imgwomanBy Fakir HassenJohannesburg, Oct 7 (PTI) A South African traditional healer has been sentenced to life in prison for motivating the brutal beheading of an Indian-origin woman by promising four youths over USD 150,000.Sibonakaliso Mbili had promised one of the four co- accused, Falakhe Khumalo, to pay 2 million Rand (USD 153,000) for bringing head of an Indian or a white or a coloured woman, to be used in illegal witchcraft purposes, officials said.Khumalo, with the help of three other youths – Jimmy Stanley Thelejala, Mlungisi Ndlovu and Mbali Magwala – lured Indian-origin Desiree Murugan to a sports field in the sprawling Indian township of Chatsworth near Durban in 2014.The four had killed and decapitated Murugan after stabbing her 192 times.Khumalo, who earlier confessed to the murder, is serving a life sentence for killing the woman.Thelejala and Ndlovu were awarded a 15-year prison sentence while Magwala will serve 12 years behind the bars.Magwala got a lighter sentence because he only selected Murugan as the victim but did not participate in the actual stabbing.Welcoming the sentence, the community members said that it would send a strong message to those who are duped into believing that human body parts can be used as traditional medicines.Earlier, the Traditional Healers Association of South Africa had also condemned the practise as one by rogue elements, in especially rural areas of the country, that was giving a bad name to genuine traditional healers. PTI FH SMJ AKJ CPSlast_img read more

10 months agoChelsea prepared to report Bayern Munich for tapping up Hudson-Odoi

first_imgTagsTransfersAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Chelsea prepared to report Bayern Munich for tapping up Hudson-Odoiby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveFrustrated Chelsea are prepared to report Bayern Munich to FIFA for tapping up Callum Hudson-Odoi.Bayern have bid £35million for 18-year-old Hudson-Odoi, understood to be an initial £15m with £20m in add-ons.”He is fast, good at dribbling, he would fit very well into our team,” said Bayern sporting director Hasan Salihamidzic on Wednesday as he addressed the media at a training camp in Qatar.Premier League rules prohibit such public comment but Bayern have not broken any FIFA regulations unless they are found to have “tapped up” Hudson-Odoi.Chelsea do not want to sell but they could lose him for next to nothing when his contract expires in summer 2020. last_img read more

Banks see initial writedowns future earnings bump under Trump tax changes

first_imgTORONTO – Canadian banks are expecting some short-term pain from U.S. President Donald Trump’s tax overhaul, but a significant lift on future earnings.RBC chief executive Dave McKay told an investment conference Tuesday that he expects a writedown of US$150 million, plus or minus 10 or 15 per cent, in the bank’s first quarter. However, he said Canada’s biggest bank by market capitalization is expecting an annual tax-positive benefit of US$150 million- to US$200-million going forward.“(It’s) a real positive story as far as impact to the bottom line from tax in the United States,” McKay told the industry conference.Meanwhile, BMO CEO Darryl White, who took the helm of the bank (TSX:BMO) in November, confirmed Tuesday his bank’s prior guidance that it would reduce its net deferred tax asset by US$400 million. However, he said that the bank also expects a positive economic impact of US$100 million annually, or 10 per cent of its U.S. earnings.“That’s a pretty attractive story,” White told the conference, hosted by RBC (TSX:RY). “Nobody put that in their business plan two years ago.”Late last year, as part of a massive overhaul of U.S. tax laws signed by Trump, the corporate income tax rate was cut to 21 per cent, from 35 per cent, effective this year. The move is expected to lift future corporate earnings, but the tax cut also reduced the value of deferred tax assets already held on company balance sheets. In turn, firms are expected to recognize one-time charges related to the change.Victor Dodig, CEO of Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, estimated it would record a one-time charge of $100 million stemming from Trump’s tax changes. While CIBC (TSX:CM) would also expect an uptick to its earnings in the long run, it would be “negligible at first,” given the size of its U.S. business at 12 to 13 per cent of the bank’s overall earnings, he added.“We anticipate that (impact) to grow on a relative basis as the business grows,” Dodig told the audience. “We have said that the business is going to grow to 17 per cent of our business, over time.”Toronto-Dominion bank (TSX:TD) has also said it expects its first-quarter results will be cut by roughly US$400 million, but the lower corporate rate is expected to have a “positive” effect on its future earnings.TD chief executive Bharat Masrani told the conference that it did not quantify the exact impact because the tax reform package is quite complicated and has some ambiguities, and further guidance is required from the Internal Revenue Service and the U.S. Department of Treasury. He said Canada’s largest bank by assets is working through the changes and expects to provide more details after the first-quarter, which ends Jan. 31.“But on a net basis… it should be beneficial for TD,” he said.Brian Porter, the chief executive of the Bank of Nova Scotia, says the charge it expects to record due to U.S. tax reforms is “not material,” at an estimated $5 million- to $10-million.He noted that Scotiabank, whose strategy has included increasing scale within the Pacific Alliance countries of Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, earns roughly $500 million a year south of the border and does not have a lot of deferred tax assets in the U.S.Porter noted that Scotiabank’s deferred tax assets are in Canada and other jurisdictions.Not all the talk Tuesday about U.S. policy was buoyant.McKay said there is an increased likelihood that the North American Free Trade Agreement — which Trump has repeatedly threatened to withdraw the U.S. from — will be jettisoned.“I think the probabilities are increasing that you will have some type of dynamic where there is an announcement of a scrapping of NAFTA,” he said. “However, there is still a 180-day notice period where there is room for negotiation.”McKay added while there was room for “modernization” of the trade agreement, he agreed with the Canadian government’s stance that “no deal is better than a bad deal.”“We don’t want to be stuck long-term with a deal that hurts our economy.”last_img read more

Zimmer supportive of Conservative Partys plans to repeal Bill C71 if elected

first_imgThe proposed legislation would roll back some automatic authorizations to transport restricted and prohibited firearms, such as handguns and assault weapons. Under the bill, owners wouldn’t need a permit to take them to a shooting range or home from a store, but would need to apply for a transport permit to take them to a gun show or a gunsmith.The federal government says the legislation was introduced to combat firearms-related crime that has increased in recent years. There were 2,465 criminal violations involving firearms in 2016, an increase of 30 percent since 2013. Gun homicides rose from 134 to 223 during that timeframe.On Wednesday, Conservative leader Andrew Scheer announced that a Conservative government would introduce legislation to repeal the Bill if it becomes law.“It does nothing to keep Canadians safe. It does nothing to address gang violence or target gang criminals. In fact, the word ‘gang’ doesn’t even appear in the bill,” Scheer said. “All C-71 does is target the most responsible and the most vetted members of our society.”MP Zimmer released a statement this morning saying he supported the move.“I have said from its introduction in the House of Commons that the Liberal Firearms Bill does nothing to make communities safer and treats our law-abiding firearms owners like criminals,” said Zimmer. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – Prince George-Peace River-Northern Rockies MP Bob Zimmer has released a statement supporting Wednesday’s announcement by federal Conservative Party leader Andrew Scheer that his party would repeal Bill C-71 if they were to form government.The Bill, which was introduced by Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale in March, would expand the scope of background checks on gun license applicants to cover their entire life, instead of just the past five years.Other new rules in the legislation would require commercial gun retailers to keep “ledgers” of gun inventories and sales for a period of 20 years, though private gun sellers would be exempt. Those ledgers would be able to be accessed by police after obtaining a warrant, something that federal authorities in the United States don’t need. Anyone purchasing a gun both privately and commercially would also be required to present a valid firearms license before the sale is made. “I commend Mr. Scheer for being the only national leader to stand up and defend the rights of lawful firearms owners. The number one priority of any government should be the safety of Canadians. That is why a Conservative Government will repeal the Liberal’s ineffective firearms legislation and replace it with a law that targets criminals, protects Canadians and respects sport shooters and law-abiding firearms owners.”In addition to representing the riding of Prince George-Peace River-Northern Rockies, Zimmer also serves as Co-Chair of the Parliamentary Outdoor Caucus.last_img read more

Modi leads BJP attack on rivals over Pulwama attack IAF strike

first_imgNew Delhi: Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Friday led a fresh BJP offensive on rival parties over the Pulwama terror attack and the subsequent IAF strike inside Pakistan, terming the Opposition “the natural habitat of terror apologists” and accusing them of “insulting” armed forces.Using the hashtag ‘Janta Maaf Nahi Karegi’ (people will not forgive) in a tweet, Modi attacked Sam Pitroda, who looks after Congress’ overseas affairs, for reportedly saying that post the Mumbai terror attacks, India could have responded with air strikes, but “according to me that’s not how you deal with world.” Also Read – Uddhav bats for ‘Sena CM'”Loyal courtier of Congress’ royal dynasty admits what the nation already knew- Congress was unwilling to respond to forces of terror. This is a New India- we will answer terrorists in a language they understand and with interest!,” Moid said. “Opposition insults our forces time and again. I appeal to my fellow Indians- question Opposition leaders on their statements. Tell them- 130 crore Indians will not forgive or forget the Opposition for their antics. India stands firmly with our forces,” he added, using the hashtag. Also Read – Farooq demands unconditional release of all detainees in J&KBJP president Amit Shah also took to Twitter to hit out at the opposition, saying, while their “heart beats for terrorists, ours beats for the tiranga (the national flag).” “Difference between Opposition and BJP is clear. They suspect our army, we are proud of our army. Their heart beats for terrorists, ours beats for the Tiranga.” “This election, through the power of your vote, do a surgical strike on the Congress culture,” Shah tweeted. Pitroda has also reportedly said he wanted to “know more” about the Balakot air attack and number of terrorists killed in it. Senior BJP leader and Union minister Arun Jaitley slammed Pitroda for his remarks, saying such statements will be a hit on Pakistani news channels. “He thinks what we did (Balakot air strike) was wrong. No other country has said that it was wrong. Even the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has not said such a thing. This is only the opinion of Pakistan. It is unfortunate that such people are role models for a political party,” the Finance Minister said at a BJP press conference. Earlier, in his tweets, Modi also slammed Samajwadi Party leader Ram Gopal Yadav, who alleged the Pulwama attack was a “conspiracy” to garner votes. “This was a conspiracy…But, when there will be a change of government, investigations will be done and prominent people will come under the scanner, who had pushed our youth to death to garner votes,” he alleged Thursday speaking at a programme at Saifai. PM Modi termed the statement reprehensible. “Opposition is the natural habitat of terror apologists and questioners of our armed forces. This reprehensible statement by a senior leader like Ram Gopal Ji insults all those who have given their lives in protecting Kashmir. It humiliates the families of our martyrs,” he said. The PM in his tweets tagged the reported statements of Yadav and Pitroda. Meanwhile, Samajwadi Party chief Akhilesh Yadav Friday said sacrifices of the armed forces should never be questioned, but advised the government “to stop pretending to be the Indian Army”. He also said that in a democracy it was the “fundamental right” of politicians to ask questions.last_img read more

Centuryold mystery of Voynich code solved

first_imgLondon: Scientists say they have decoded the Voynich manuscript, a mysterious medieval code whose purpose and meaning has eluded scholars for over a century. The Voynich manuscript is an illustrated codex hand-written in an unknown writing system. The vellum on which it is written has been carbon-dated to the early 15th century. By cracking the Voynich code, the researchers at the University of Bristol in the UK succeeded where countless cryptographers, linguistics scholars and computer programmes have failed. Also Read – Saudi Crown Prince Salman ‘snubbed’ Pak PM Imran, recalled his private jet from US: ReportIt took Research Associate Gerard Cheshire two weeks, using a combination of lateral thinking and ingenuity, to identify the language and writing system of the famously inscrutable document. It is named after Wilfrid Voynich, a Polish-Samogitian book dealer who purchased it in 1912. In the journal Romance Studies, Cheshire describes how he successfully deciphered the manuscript’s codex and, at the same time, revealed the only known example of proto-Romance language. Also Read – Iraq military admits ‘excessive force’ used in deadly protests”I experienced a series of ‘eureka’ moments whilst deciphering the code, followed by a sense of disbelief and excitement when I realised the magnitude of the achievement, both in terms of its linguistic importance and the revelations about the origin and content of the manuscript,” Cheshire said. He said “what it reveals is even more amazing than the myths and fantasies it has generated.” For example, the manuscript was compiled by Dominican nuns as a source of reference for Maria of Castile, Queen of Aragon — an autonomous community in Spain, said Cheshire. “It is also no exaggeration to say this work represents one of the most important developments to date in Romance linguistics. The manuscript is written in proto-Romance — ancestral to today’s Romance languages including Portuguese, Spanish, French, Italian, Romanian, Catalan and Galician. “The language used was ubiquitous in the Mediterranean during the Medieval period, but it was seldom written in official or important documents because Latin was the language of royalty, church and government. “As a result, proto-Romance was lost from the record, until now,” Cheshire said. The text uses an extinct language. Its alphabet is a combination of unfamiliar and more familiar symbols.last_img read more

Four get life in jail for killing cook after he asked for

first_imgBettiah (Bihar): Four people, including three brothers, were Thursday sentenced to life imprisonment by a court here for beating a worker to death when he asked for his payment. Beer Bahadur Mahto, a cook, was killed in 2010 by Vinod Choudhary, his two brothers Rameshwar Choudhary and Subodh Choudhary and one Prem Choudhary when he demanded his payment for cooking at a wedding, officials said. Mahto was promised Rs 1,500 for cooking at the wedding in Vinod’s house in Bahuarwa village of West Champaran district, but he was beaten with cane, stones and bricks, they said. He died at the M J K Hospital in Bettiah during treatment. The court of Additional District and Sessions Judge (ADJ) (VIII) Surendra Prasad has held the four people guilty and sentenced them to life imprisonment, Additional Public Prosecutor Jaishankar Tiwary said. The court also slapped a fine of Rs 10,000 on each one of them, he added.last_img read more